DIY REMOTE CONTROL CAR: THE BEST RC CAR TUTORIAL

Remote control car
Remote control cars have been the dream the toy for most kids. And you can never outgrow them! In this post, I will show you step by step, how to make a simple Remote Control Car that operates in RF (radio frequency). This is a very simple and beginner level robotic project which can be made by anyone with interest. I will be discussing on the working of all integrated circuits (IC) and modules used in this robot. And there is no programming required for making this robot!

Watch the robot inAction   🙂   😀

Stuff you need to make the robot (Rc Car)

Make the power supply

First we will start with the power supply circuit. Both rf transmitter and receiver circuit need separate power supply The receiver circuit need to powered using 12v supply and transmitter circuit can be powered using 9v battery
Power supply

PIN DESCRIPTION OF 7805 IC
1 (1)

  1. Pin 1 — Input voltage (5v-18v ) [V in]
  2. Pin 2 — Ground [gnd]
  3. Pin 3 — Regulated Output (4.8v – 5.2v]
  • IC 7805 which regulates the 12v supply to 5v (if cant get a 12v supply you can use a 9v supply)
  • 0.1uf & 470uf capacitor
  • And 1k resistor for status led

NOTE: Use heat sink for 7805 because we are dropping 7v (12-5 )so lots of heat will be produced to burn the regulator so use heat sink is recommended


What is RF module ?


433mhz rf transmitter and receiver

This RF module consist of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz. An RF transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wireless through RF through its antenna connected at pin 4. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps – 10Kbps.The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. The RF module is used along with a pair of encoder and decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder. HT12E-HT12D

Working of the Robot

The RF module is used along with a pair of encoder and decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder. HT12E-HT12D

PIN DESCRIPTION RF TRANSMITTER

Pin 1 — Ground [GND]

Pin 2 — Serial Data Input Pin [DATA]

Pin 3 — Power supply; 5V [Vcc]

Pin 4 — Antenna output pin [ANT]

RF RECEIVER

Pin 1 — Ground [GND]

Pin 2 — Serial data output pin [DATA]

Pin 3 — Linear output pin (Not connected) [NC]

Pin 4 — Power supply;5v [Vcc]

Pin 5 — Power supply;5v [Vcc]

Pin 6 — Ground [GND]

Pin 7 — Ground [GND]

Pin 8 — Antenna Input pin [ANT]


Make the Transmitter (Remote)

RF transmitter circuit_

 The transmitter circuit consist of
  1. HT12E encoder
  2. RF transmitter module
  3. Two DPDT switch
  4. and 1M resistor

You can see i have marked A, B, C, D in the transmitter circuit after the switch and see the DPDT connection diagram below there also you can see i have marked A, B, C, D. Connect A,B,C,D on the transmitter circuit to A,B,C,D on the 2 DPDT switch.
DPDT
The DPDT switch connections is shown above.

HT12E PIN DESCRIPTION

Ht12E

Pin (1- 8) — 8 bit address pin for output [ A0,A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7 ]

Pin 9 — Ground [ Gnd ]

Pin (10,11,12,13) — 4 bit address pin for input [ AD0,AD1,AD2,AD3 ]

Pin 14 — Transmission enable , Active low [TE]

Pin 15 — Oscillator input [ Osc2 ]

Pin 16 — Oscillator output [ Osc1 ]

Pin 17 — Serial data output [ Output ]

Pin 18 — Supply voltage 5V (2.4V-12V) [ vcc ]

A0-A7 — These are 8 bit address pin for the output.

GND — This pin should also be connected to the negative of the power supply.

TE — This are the transmission enable pin.

Osc 1,2 — These pins are the oscillator input and output pins.This pin are connected to each other with a external resistor.

Output — This is an output pin. The data signals is given out from this pin.

Vcc — The Vcc pin connected to positive power supply, It is used to power the IC.

AD0 – AD3 — These are the 4 bit address pins.


RECEIVER
RF Receiver circuit
The receiver circuit consist of 2 IC(HT12D decoder , L293D motor driver),RF receiver module
Wire the circuit as per the above receiver schematic. There is 2 led in the receiver board ,one lights up when power supply is given to the receiver and the other when power supply is given to transmitter circuit the led near the IC HT12D should lit and this provides you a valid transmission(VT) when power is given at the transmitter if not there is something wrong with your connection or your RF TX RX module NOTE: Use red wire for positive and black for negative if there is any problem with the circuit it will be easy for debugging the circuit

PIN DESCRIPTION FOR HT12D ht12dVDD and VSS: This pin are used to provide power to the IC, Positive and Negative of the power supply respectively

DIN: This pin is the serial data input and can be connected to a RF receiver output.

A0 – A7: This are the address input . Status of these pins should match with status of address pin in HT12E (used in transmitter) to receive the data. These pins can be connected to VSS or left open

D8 – D11: This are the data output pins. Status of these pins can be VSS or VDD depending upon the received serial data through pin DIN.

VT: stand for Valid Transmission. This output pin will be HIGH when valid data is available at D8 – D11 data output pins.


OSC1
and OSC2: This pin are used to connect external resistor for internal oscillator of HT12D. OSC1 is the oscillator input pin and OSC2 is the
oscillator  output pin
L293D (Motor Driver)
The L293D is a Motor Driver IC it allows the motor to drive on both direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC with eight pins, on each side, dedicated to the controlling of a motor which can control a set of two DC motors at a same time in any direction. With one L293D we can control 2 dc motors ,There are 2 INPUT pins, 2 OUTPUT pins and 1 ENABLE pin for each motor. L293D consist of two H-bridge. H-bridge is the simplest circuit for controlling a low current rated motor.
l293d (
PIN DESCRIPTION OF L293D

Pin 1 — Enable pin for motor 1 [Enable 1 ]
Pin 2 — Input pin 1 for Motor 1 [Input 1 ]
Pin 3 — Output pin 1 for Motor 1 [Output 1]
Pin 4,5,12,13 — Ground [ GND ]
Pin 6 — Output Pin 2 for Motor 1 [ Output 2 ]
Pin 7 — Input pin 2 for motor 1 [ Input 2 ]
Pin 8 — Power supply for motors(9-12v) [Vcc]
Pin 9 — Enable pin for motor 2 [ Enable 2 ]
Pin 10 Input pin 1 for motor 1 [Input 3 ]
Pin 11 Output pin 2 for motor 1 [Output 3]
Pin 14 Output 2 for motor 1 [ Output4 ]
Pin 15 Input 2 for motor 1 [ Input 4 ]
Pin 16 supply voltage ; 5V [ Vcc1 ]


Choose the right motor

Choosing a motor is very important and it totally depends on the type of robot (car) you are making if you are making a smaller one use 6v Bo motor If you are making a larger one which need to carry heavy load then use an 12v dc motor

CHOOSE THE RIGHT RPM FOR MOTOR

I have 12V 300 RPM motor RPM, which stands for revolutions per minute, is the amount of times the shaft of a DC motor completes a full spin cycle per minute. A full spin cycle is when the shaft turns a full 360°. The amount of 360° turns, or revolutions, a motor does in a minute is its RPM value. You should be very careful while choosing the rpm don’t choose motors of higher rpm cause i will be difficult to control it and remember SPEED IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO TORQUE

DEBUGGING (OPTIONAL, if there is problem with circuit)  FPQY2VSHWU4Q4DZ.MEDIUM
In this session i will be discussing on debugging the circuit First of all don’t be angry just keep calm for debugging we will split the circuit in different First we will be debugging the
L293D IC
Place the IC on a bread board and give 5v and Gnd to the IC and then give the 12v to pin 8. connect the enable pins of the motors to 5v .Now give power to the input of one motors and check the output pins with a multimeter. If it shows nothing then there is problem with you motor driver
POWER SUPPLY
Most of the problems arise in the power supply circuit is due to short circuit so for checking power off the circuit and use a multimeter  to check whether there is any connection between Negative and positive

DECODER AND ENCODER(HT12E/Ht12D)
ht12d debugging
For debugging the decoder and encoder IC connect pin 7 of HT12E to pin 14 of HT12D ,Connect push buttons at pin 10,11,12,13 of HT12E and connect 4 leds at pin 10,11,12,13 of the decoder ( connect as per Decoder and Encoder Debugging circuit [fig 3]) The leds should light up when switches are pressed
If your robot is still not working then there would be problem with the RF module and so try replacing the module.

131 thoughts on “DIY REMOTE CONTROL CAR: THE BEST RC CAR TUTORIAL

  1. A small change…. In the transmitter circuit, we actually need to ground pin 14 and connect pin 17 to the data pin of the TX (transmitter).
    But hats off to the project. Thanks Mayoogh for the circuit diagram. I made it.

  2. Hii I am Anand Joshi from India.
    First of all this is great work by you. I am planning to make this car. I have to ask from where I can get those wheels like yours? And what is better between adding 2 nine volts battery on car or adding a single 12 volt battery on car?
    Your explanation would be really helpful.
    Thanks for sharing this great stuff in this neat manner. Thank u alot.looking forward for your answer. 🙂

  3. I am using 12 volt 1.3 A battery.which charger should I use? Please provide link if it is possible for you. Should I connect radio antennas to the wire of transmitter and receiver?

  4. thanks MAYOOGH GIRISH this is the best tutorial i have seen of rc car with well define schematic n images and every thing… thumbs up !!
    n one more thing u r so helpful man.. #sucessfuly made RC CAR

  5. hello in the dpdt switch connections where to connect the ground??. I mean that the dpdt switch connections u have shown has only A<B<C<D pins. where is the ground pin in the dpdt switch connection u have shown??

    1. You need to connect gnd of dpdt switch to the gnd of the transmitter circuit (connect to negative of circuit/middle pin of 7805) and Vcc to the positive of the circuit(third pin of 7805/outputpin)

      1. Now it’s not heating ,but when I supply give supply to receiver motor on pin no. 14 starts rotating even I don’t give signal to pin no.14,other motors works properly.

  6. ## is 1M mean absolutely 1M . I have 100k resistance . can i use them ??

    ## can i use fs1000A tramsmitter receiver . where receiver has only 4 pins ??

    1. No, 1M is recommended one.
      There is noting to worry if you have a fs1000A module. the module used here have same pins (Data, Vcc, Gnd, Ant) as yours fs1000A module. The other module just have multiple gnd and vcc pins

    1. No servos are used here , the car turns when the wheels on the either as side rotates in different directions,ie the motors on the left side will rotate forward nd motors on right side rotates backwards nd vice versa

    1. No servos are used here , the car turns when the wheels on the either as side rotates in different directions,ie the motors on the left side will rotate forward nd motors on right side rotates backwards nd vice versa

  7. hey i am actually working on the same project that you made well i was successfully able to transmit and receive the data but was not able to get proper out put from the l293d and may i know how many batteries and how much total voltage is used on the receiver or say the vehicle side??and after seeing your circuit diagram i got few doubts, first of all we need to use decoder on receiver side and connect it to motor driver right?? as encoder HT12E converts the parallel inputs into serial output. It encodes the 12 bit parallel data into serial for transmission through an RF transmitter and the reverse case happens with decoder.

    1. The receiver circuit can be powered by either 9v or 12 (since we have using 7805 voltage regulator) depending upon the voltage of your motor ,
      The l293d 8th pin should be given 9/12v , that is the motor voltage supply pin

  8. Hello, great work. I am very passionate on making this types of gadgets on my own. I don’t understand where to start from. Can you please help me?

  9. Actually I’m an absolute beginner to these kinds of things. This tutorial is very good. But I really don’t understand the thing called “ground” (GND).Can you please tell me what is that? And what should I do with that? Please !

  10. Thanks for the previous explanation. But now I have another problem. Actually what are those things called ‘4 bit address’ and ‘8 bit address’ ?It’s really confusing. In the HT12E pin description pin(1-8) are for 8 bit address pin for output and pin 9 is for gnd. But in the transmitter circuit all of the 9 pins are connected to GND. please help me to solve it.

  11. Your tutorial is the best tutorial that even a beginner like me also understand it. I understood everything except one thing. Where do the wheels go? I meant there are two circles called m1 and m2 and I believe that is motor 1 and motor 2. Is ‘m1 and m2’ for the 2 wheels of back or is it for all the four wheels (1 for 2 wheels and other one for other 2 wheels) ?

  12. Is it a good idea to use a DC Motor on each rear wheel and a servo to control the freely moving front wheels assembly for steering? Can this be achieved with same RF Module, HT12E Encoder Decoder and L293D driver ? Appreciate your time. Thanks

  13. hello sir .. why only one motor move at one time in 1 ic l293d ..why cannot run both motor simultaneously..vcc2 i use 12v. and i want to know ..do you use 2 l293d ic for 4 motor or only 1 ic thank you sir

      1. If i take out left motor the right motor will run..if take out right motor the left one will run..that mean only one motor can run at one time .. What does that mean ? My vcc not enough ? Sory for bad english sir thank you

  14. hello sir .. why only one motor move at one time in 1 ic l293d ..why cannot run both motor simultaneously..vcc2 i use 12v and do you use 2 l293d ic to control 4 motor or just one ic ..thank you

  15. Hello sir .. Why only one motor run at one time in one l293d ic cannot run them simultaneously..vcc2 12v and do you use 1 l293d to control 4 motors ?

  16. Hello sir..my problem before solved..my suplly for motor not enough i need 8 AA bat or can u recomend me type of bat to supply for motors..next problem i dont understand how u drive 4 motor ..do you use 1 ic l293d and 4 motors by parallel the motor ? Sory for bad english thank you ^^

  17. Im a 6th grader that goes to a school for the gifted and talented and I used this for my project and I got a A, I also added some more touches, like a camera and a protective sheet for it.

  18. Hello, I want to help you a little. I can give you the pcb diagram of these two circit boards. At ptesent, it is very confusing. It will make easy to make the circuit.

    1. I have bought L293D ic. But, It’s not attached on a pcb. It’s separate ic. Is it ok? Its not looking like you.

      In 5v regulating circuit, which capacitors should I use? Somewhere you have written 10uf and 100uf, whereas somewhere you have written 0.1uf. I am confused.

      Also, can I use 3 batteries of 4v instead of 12v battery?

      Can you upload clear image of Receiver circuit. Or send it on my email pls.

    1. Do I need to place VCC in dpdt switch also, or only negative. Because you have not connected VCC in circuit diagram but in switch connection diagram, you have connected.

  19. In the recieve section HT12D should be used in circuit. But it’s written HT12E with pin labelling as that of HT12E but I think the connection is correct with respect to pin numbers of HT12D. Please correct the error

  20. I have almost completed the car but recently faced a problem:
    When I press A, the motor turns but when I release the button, the motor doesn’t stop and the connection led also turns off. I have read on internet. It may be due to noise produced by motor. But I need a professional answer from you. What can I do?

  21. Which motor is to be used 6v or 12 v because output for motor is about 5-6 v n u mentioned 12 v dc motor.
    Also I’m facing problem ie when I push button A it starts turning.it doesn’t stops n led also off
    How to overcomethis problem please help

  22. “”””For debugging the decoder and encoder IC connect pin 7 of HT12E to pin 14 of HT12D ,Connect push buttons at pin 10,11,12,13 of HT12E and connect 4 leds at pin 10,11,12,13 of the decoder”””””
    BUT IN THE DEBUGGING CIRCUIT YOU DIDN’T CONNECT ANY PIN OF THIS STYLE

  23. I want to add head lights to the car . So, i need an ic pair capable of encoding and decoding 6 signals. Can u tell me which ic pair should i use?

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